peptone n : any of various water-soluble compounds that form by hydrolysis in the digestion of proteins to amino acids
Peptides (from the Greek πεπτίδια, "small digestibles") are short polymers formed from the linking, in a defined order, of α-amino acids. The link between one amino acid residue and the next is known as an amide bond or a peptide bond.
Proteins are polypeptide molecules (or consist of multiple polypeptide subunits). The distinction is that peptides are short and polypeptides/proteins are long. There are several different conventions to determine these, all of which have caveats and nuances.
ConventionsOne convention is that those peptide chains that are short enough to be made synthetically from the constituent amino acids are called peptides rather than proteins. However, with the advent of better synthetic techniques, peptides as long as hundreds of amino acids can be made, including full proteins like ubiquitin. Native chemical ligation has given access to even longer proteins, so this convention seems to be outdated.
Another convention places an informal dividing line at approximately 50 amino acids in length (some people claim shorter lengths). However, this definition is somewhat arbitrary. Long peptides, such as the amyloid beta peptide linked to Alzheimer's disease, can be considered proteins; and small proteins, such as insulin, can be considered peptides.
Peptide classesHere are the major classes of peptides, according to how they are produced:
- See also Tryptone
- Are derived from animal milk or meat digested by proteolytic digestion. In addition to containing small peptides, the resulting spray-dried material includes fats, metals, salts, vitamins and many other biological compounds. Peptone is used in nutrient media for growing bacteria and fungi.
Peptides in molecular biologyPeptides have received prominence in molecular biology in recent times for several reasons. The first and most important is that peptides allow the creation of peptide antibodies in animals without the need to purify the protein of interest. This involves synthesizing antigenic peptides of sections of the protein of interest. These will then be used to make antibodies in a rabbit or mouse against the protein.
Another reason is that peptides have become instrumental in mass spectrometry, allowing the identification of proteins of interest based on peptide masses and sequence. In this case the peptides are most often generated by in-gel digestion after electrophoretic separation of the proteins.
Peptides have recently been used in the study of protein structure and function. For example, synthetic peptides can be used as probes to see where protein-peptide interactions occur.
Inhibitory peptides are also used in clinical research to examine the effects of peptides on the inhibition of cancer proteins and other diseases.
Well-known peptide families in humansThe peptide families in this section are all ribosomal peptides, usually with hormonal activity. All of these peptides are synthesized by cells as longer "propeptides" or "proproteins" and truncated prior to exiting the cell. They are released into the bloodstream where they perform their signalling functions.
Vasoactive intestinal peptides
Pancreatic polypeptide-related peptides
Notes on terminology
- A polypeptide is a single linear chain of amino acids.
- A protein is one or more polypeptides more than about 50 amino acids long.
- An oligopeptide or (simply) a peptide is a polypeptide less than 30-50 amino acids long.
- A dipeptide has two amino acids.
- A tripeptide has three amino acids.
- A pentapeptide has five amino acids.
- A nonapeptide has nine amino acids (e.g., oxytocin).
- A decapeptide has ten amino acids (e.g., gonadotrophin geleasing hormone).
- A neuropeptide is a peptide that is active in association with neural tissue.
- A peptide hormone is a peptide that acts as a hormone.
peptone in Arabic: هضميد
peptone in Bulgarian: Полипептид
peptone in Catalan: Pèptid
peptone in Czech: Peptid
peptone in Danish: Peptid
peptone in German: Peptid
peptone in Estonian: Peptiidid
peptone in Spanish: Péptido
peptone in Esperanto: Peptido
peptone in Persian: پپتید
peptone in French: Peptide
peptone in Korean: 펩타이드
peptone in Italian: Peptide
peptone in Hebrew: פפטיד
peptone in Lithuanian: Polipeptidas
peptone in Macedonian: Пептид
peptone in Japanese: ペプチド
peptone in Norwegian: Peptid
peptone in Norwegian Nynorsk: Peptid
peptone in Occitan (post 1500): Peptid
peptone in Polish: Peptydy
peptone in Portuguese: Peptídeo
peptone in Russian: Пептиды
peptone in Slovak: Peptid
peptone in Finnish: Peptidi
peptone in Swedish: Peptid
peptone in Ukrainian: Пептиди
peptone in Urdu: Peptide
peptone in Chinese: 肽
peptone in Turkish: peptit